Demand Generation

Septage management was given attention since the inception of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in 2008, which focused on creating access to toilets and ODF communities. Under the state sanitation strategy, NUSP initiated a framework for cities to prepare City Sanitation Plans (CSPs). NUSP 2.0 draft has goals to ensure that all urban population have access to safe sanitation and hygiene facilities at all times, safe fecal sludge management (FSM).

National and some state governments are ensuring safe sanitation by pledging resources to implement FSM solution, and services. However, there is a sustained need for engagement between urban local bodies (ULBs) and citizens to create demand for correct FSM services by shaping people’s attitudes towards FSM practices. Hence, it is crucial to understand that effective implementation of sustainable sanitation practices and technologies are demand driven. Furthermore, communities will only accept solutions when they understand them and see their benefits. Demand for sustainable sanitation and water management systems is only created when end-users be motivated to invest in sanitation systems, which suits their needs and aspirations.

Inactive people engagement by any of the following means might lead to failure in achieving safe sanitation goal.

  • Constructing toilets without septic tanks and thereby human waste directly going into storm water drains
  • Building septic tanks incorrectly without the recommended two chambers and a soak pit
  • Avoiding to desludge their septic tanks as they are built for lifetime
  • Employing manual scavengers to desludge the septic tanks
  • Dumping the desludged waste into empty plots and water bodies

Laws and policies enforced at the government level are insufficient to change and sustain people behaviour. It is also not enough to have infrastructure or service delivery mechanisms in place if they are under-utilised. Hence, it becomes necessary to build enough demand for these services for people to avail them.

Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) is critical as FSM is not prioritized among citizens an evidence-based and human centred design approach to SBCC delivers communication that demystifies and personalises the threats linked to unsafe faecal sludge and septage management.

(Involves the full cycle of sanitation from collection/containment to recycle and reuse) Umbrella Campaigns (Smaller, more specific topics within the Umbrella Campaigns) Specific Campaigns (Form of interactive experiences, created to help behavior change) Nudges Communications Perception Attitudes Behaviour (Figure-1: Association between different components to behaviour change. Source: Behaviour Change Communication Strategy: Fecal sludge Management in Tamil Nadu)

Gaps in the sanitation value chain can pose risks to health and the environment. Some gaps and challenges can be addressed through policy and infrastructure, while others are behavioural.








Licensed Desludging Operators


  • Low awareness about correct containment systems
  • Low motivation to demand scientifically built septic tanks according to specifications
  • Low risk perception of the dangers of open discharge into drains
  • Low motivation to encourage the building of scientific containment structures
  • Low awareness of correct containment structures
  • Low awareness of the need for regular desludging every three years
  • Low motivation to seek and pay for services from licensed desludging operators
  • Prevalence of stigma against desludgers

Low awareness about risks of indiscriminate dumping of collected faecal waste

Low motivation and acceptance of faecal sludge treatment plants in their vicinity

Licensed Desludging Operators

Low motivation to wear stipulated personal protective equipment (PPE)


  • Low motivation to prioritize enforcement of FSM policy and monitoring of FSM activities
  • Low motivation to establish FSM service delivery and treatment plants


Without proper on-site containment or treatment, water used for drinking, recreation and agriculture can be contaminated

Workers without adequate protections face life-threatening risks when emptying pits and septic tanks and cleaning sewers.

Communities are put at risk when untreated wastewater and sludge pollute, drinking water, and water sources used for irrigation of crops

(Figure-2: SBCC challenges across the sanitation value chain. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

Current ecosystem for SBCC and Demand Generation focuses on:

  • Enhancing the capacities of States/ UTs and ULBs to plan, design and implement targeted Information, Education & Communication (IEC) & BCC interventions with their allocated funds
  • Scale up inter-personal communication, strategic partnerships across all sectors, and mid-media activities to improve the overall sanitation outcomes. Highlight the importance of sanitation workers/ SafaiMitras services to promote their dignity and safety among citizens. In case of promoting local entrepreneurs, Odisha already focuses on the value and role of community-level institutions such as Swachh Sathis, Swachh Supervisors, Swachh Karmis, Mission Shakti Women Self Help Groups (SHGs), and Transgenders in Sanitation management.
  • Engagement between ULBs and citizens for demand generation on sanitation by shaping citizens attitude towards sanitation practices. SBM-U incorporates most of these strategies. Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) incorporates scaling-up of inter-personal communication to improve sanitation outcome at citizen level. Malasur campaign - demon of defeca got a huge response from citizens due to its promotion through various communication platforms
  • Promote participation of local entrepreneurs, women led SHGs, home makers, students, youth groups, political leaders, retired professionals, celebrities, non-governmental organization (NGOs) etc. for effective outreach
  • Ensure inclusive communication narrative focusing on women, third gender, and persons with disabilities

Various digital tools can be created to increase citizen outreach, facilitate transparent monitoring of mission progress, and make it paperless to ensure consistency of results across all ULBs. Following are some of the commonly used IT-enabled applications for tracking urban sanitation processes

IT-enabled Application


Citizen feedback enabled applications

  • Citizens can register sanitation related complaints and ULBs can address them efficiently through Swachhata App enabling demand generation, ensuring transparency and accountability in sanitation service delivery
  • National Helpline number like 14420 allows citizens to register complaints on manual entry into sewers and septic tanks

Dashboard and Analytics platform-

  • Dashboards such as SBM-U allows ULBs to create city profiles covering infrastructure and assets with periodic reports on sanitation management progress through a single sign-on approach ensuring standardized information across States/ULBs.
  • Swachh Nagar and IoT based asset monitoring generates large amount of data to accelerate the progress in waste management

GIS Mapping based applications

  • Geo spatial enabled applications supports in creation of project proposals and tracking for States/ ULBs by marking their city, ward, and assets boundaries & update progress on project site, along with its geo coordinates
  • This GIS application provides a wide range of capabilities such as data visualization, analysis, understanding and insight into city or ULBs’ activities.
  • For instance, National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) , Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)leverage Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of SBM-U assets and infrastructure
  • MoHUA has partnered with Google to map all CT/ PTs on Google maps as SBM Toilet. Citizens can also provide feedback and rate these public toilets

Assessments and Ratings

Annual GFC Rating, Swachh Survekshan & ODF Assessments through an integrated module to capture online data for assessment and store documents for paperless communication

E-Learning Platform

  • Training/ learning modules customized to different audiences including frontline workers, ULBs, mission officials, agencies, and citizens such as iGoT platform which is used for Used for career development, learning, discussion, and networking requirements
  • For instance, Swachh Bharat e-Learning Portal, which is powered by Project Sangam- trained 110,000+ municipal functionaries across 4,000+ cities on best sanitation practices

(Table-1: Various IT-enabled applications available for governance and citizen feedback. Source: Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban 2.0)

Citizen feedback has seen significant importance in recent years and as per Swachh Survekshan 2020, a total of 6,000 marks were allocated to citizen feedback, direct observation, certification, and service level progress. Citizen feedback component was allocated 1,500 marks and there were six channels to collect citizen’s feedback-1969 Helpline number, Swachhata App, Face to Face feedback collected by the field assessor, Outbound calls, SS2020s, ‘Vote for Your City App’

Immersion is the method of understanding people, their way of doing things, physical and emotional needs, and perception towards the world. Issues are identified through dialogue with different gender groups. The purpose of immersion is to understand the knowledge level, perception, attitude, opinion, appropriate behavior, media habit, and readiness to change of different communities. (SBCC Primer)

The following techniques are combined to understand immersion

  • Research- desk, formative, and landscaping studies to understand behavior drivers in target communities
  • Technical know-how, thematic knowledge, and expert inputs
  • Field visits
  • Socio-cultural and anthropological study

Target community

Public and private sector, civil society organizations such as NGOs, self-help groups, mobile network operators, and corporates Organizations Entities that can set the environment for change to happen such as government, media, and regulatory bodies Enabling environment Groups that influence populations; such as experts, teachers, health workers Practitioners Individuals, families, community Population (Figure-3: Areas of key target communities where change occurs. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

Target community segmentation

Segmentation is focused on forming standardized sub-groups within the target community landscape for effective communication reach to audience. The sub-groups are based on demographics, behavioral parameters, or psychographics. It is challenging to reach the entire audience with the same message and channels due to some audience who could be early adopters of the communication while some could be more vulnerable or difficult to reach. It is necessary to understand demographic and psychographic profile of communities even before developing the communication interventions.

Media landscape and habits

It is necessary to investigate and define the media platforms and channels that the target groups have access to and believe in, along with their media habits such as consumption pattern, and their interaction levels with various media platforms. Program-makers should analyze the current media landscape data in identifying the best opportunities to reach people by creating touchpoints.

People’s engagement is essential in achieving safe sanitation goal along with technological innovation and infrastructure provision. To redress gender disparities in society and achieve better health outcomes, it is critical to integrate gender issues into all aspects of projects starting from conceptualization, development, implementation, and evaluation. Evidence-based and insight-driven are the key attributes of the communication strategy. It is important to rely on available evidence and formative research findings at global level to influence a current behavior.

Communication strategy is essentially

  • Integration of data and information from, immersion stage, desk and formative research, landscaping studies, anthropological studies, and partner consultations
  • Organizing and selecting the most critical drivers and barriers

A communication strategy has multiple components such as,

  • A theory of change on current versus ideal behavior and the necessary pathway to achieve it
  • Strong communications framework that includes objectives, drivers, barriers, and indicators of success
  • Insight-mining from the audiences’ experience with the issue to identify a critical insight.
    • Insight will be incorporated in content development and ensure it reaches the target communities
  • Validate the media platforms used in achieving project goals by reaching identified target groups
  • Develop idea and communications outputs based on creative briefs

Communication Framework is a single document that,

  • Defines proposed target groups, desired behavioral outcomes, and specific communication objectives and indicators of success
  • Collates vital triggers and barriers for those outcomes



Data points used to track and measure the direction of the program

Set at the beginning of the intervention to provide clarity on outcomes of the intervention

Usually defined based on the objectives of program/intervention

Communication objectives helps in the evaluation of the program’s desired outcomes

Monitoring and Evaluation related questions are leveraged to develop indicators


(Table-2: Measurable monitoring and evaluation indicators and targets. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

All the stakeholders involved in the sanitation process have specific responsibilities and they have to work in collaboration to ensure smooth implementation of FSM plan. The sanitation plan can be modified or revised based on the inputs received from these stakeholders.

Stakeholder checklist


Partners with experience in conducting quantitative and qualitative research

  • Design research tools and methodology
  • Identify respondents, collect their consent for the research
  • Conduct on-ground research

Partner Organization

Mining for insights to develop effective, and insightful communication

Creative Agency and Partner Organization

Develop impactful ideas through the process of ideation

Communications Research Agency

Pretest the ideas developed by creative agency and partner organization

External Recruiting Agency

  • Recruiting right target groups
  • Developing, and conducting research tools
  • Analyzing the gathered data to provide communications specialists with distinct feedback on the likely efficacy of the content

Media Planning Partner

  • Advise on budget
  • Ideal platforms
  • Ideal intervention duration, and phases
  • Estimated reach of intervention

Potential collaborators such as funders, influencers, journalists, organizations working in the relevant field, and relevant government bodies

To ensure better implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program

Other Key Checklist Points

Interviews and focus group discussions must characterize age, gender, and social class

Set program and communication objectives- by integrating data and information from immersion stage and partner consultations

Based on the desired outcome, identify the impact of proposed intervention on target communities

Set measurable indicators and targets during and post the intervention

(Table-3: Key stakeholder checklist and their responsibilities. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

Insight mining

Insight mining is a process of multi- disciplinary strategic analysis of research, data, and experience. It relies significantly on interrogation, discussion, and debate. The communication must provide a stimulus to produce the desired outcomes. It must come from a clear, practical, and inspiring strategies. Therefore, a message resonating with the recipient is critical in the behavior change communication. The strategy then becomes a catalyst in the development of the creative idea.


After finalizing the strategy, and developing the creative plan, a range of insight-driven ideas needs to be developed by program-creators that can cover other platforms and communication touchpoints.

Recommendations for content design

  • To transform thought process of the society, the idea should resonate with audiences
  • Content should be designed in such a way that, it could highlight the position of girls, women, and other marginalized groups and encourage critical examination of inequalities
  • Content must recognize and strengthen positive norms that support gender equality, and avoid any potential negative consequences
  • Opinions from community leaders and groups are critical to promote awareness and essential in changing the power equations to address issues of inequality among target communities

Ideally, indicators and outcomes should include the impact and reach of communication when measured at the end of the intervention

The all-inclusive approach essentially amplifies a single focused idea for the target community. The concept can be used on multiple platforms such as community groups, radio, television, digital media platforms, or interpersonal communication.

For effective execution of an intervention, following aspects are critical

Permutation and combination of platforms

  • To reach the target community, a combination among mass media, online/digital media, and offline media like on-ground activities is used. Following could be few instances of platform combination.
    • Initiate with TV, followed by billboards, print, and video vans; or lead with radio and extend that to mobile phones and offline on-ground activations with community groups
    • For instance, in 2016, Tamil Nadu government conducted activities on World Toilet Day such as communication through vehicle displaying sanitation messages and audio systems for broadcast slogans, and jingles
  • Platform selection should consider community’s access to different platforms, and budget availability

A phased approach to execution

  • Phasing helps emphasize on communication that the target community observe across platforms and give them opportunity to engage in communication process

Planning for scalability

  • Communication strategies and their execution approach need to appeal wider geographies and audiences that have shared priorities with necessary infrastructure and effective service delivery models. It is necessary to customize the message to make it relevant to the target geography.
  • The execution planning process must be developed in consultation with media planning partners

Strategic considerations for media planning include,

Procurement approach for a media planning partner includes:

  • Providing comprehensive media plan and monitoring the implementation of the intervention
  • Identifying partners and sponsors such as local heroes/ influencers, radio jockeys, local media platforms, social media influencers, corporate sponsors to implement and amplify the intervention
  • Creating local participation with municipalities for activities in schools and community

Preconditions to media planning

It is important to target the proper audience at the right time with right message while balancing reach and frequency. Utilizing different media gives a better chance to communicate with people more effectively by reaching them more frequently and in different ways.

Four key aspects need to be ready and established before developing a media plan:

Appropriate media mix is critical in creating a long-lasting impression in target audiences’ minds. Identify existing influencers like self-help and community groups to maximize reach by coordinating with media planning partner Media Monitor implementation to avoid plan deviations and ensure scientific evaluation of the intervention Measure To ensure market readiness, infrastructure must be in place before a communication intervention is rolled out Market Have relevant and consistent communication across platforms. Content should be released in a phased manner for interventions with multiple calls to action to avoid confusion in audiences Message Key aspects to develop a media plan (Figure-4: Key aspects to consider before developing a media plan. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

Factors to consider for choosing the ‘right’ media mix

  • Finalize the target community from initial research, engaging with the group. Based on the media habits, access, preferences, and consumption patterns, media planning partners will guide the media mix
  • For national or regional coverage, desired reach programs use mass media as key channel
  • Budget availability- Critical in narrowing down and prioritizing the channels with best return on investment (ROI)
  • Right channel for messaging- Invest in extending the message to the right channel.
  • Collaborate with public and private agencies: For paid publicity requirements of all organizations and societies at central level, Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) provide solutions
  • Set realistic goals and measure- Monitor the results and implement the changes for future interventions

Communication Channel


Interpersonal communication (IPC)

Community meetings, Household level interactions

Mass Media



Wall Paintings, Mic Announcements, Street Theatre


Swachh Survekhsan, Drives, Convergence with other urban schemes, Local festivals

Digital Media

Social Media Platforms

(Table-4: Types of communications channels. Source: Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban 2.0, The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

Budget for execution

Prior to creating a media channel mix, it is critical to determine the research costs and accordingly allocate budget for a media planning partner. In case of conservative budgets, either consider alternative lower-cost channels or communicate with departments having overlapping objectives for sharing budget. From cost perspective, collaborating with the government's Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) is beneficial as the funding approvals and payment procedures are made simpler by DAVP's standardized rates. The media plan from DAVP ensures competitive rates and autonomous distribution of media plans across platforms and locations. Funding and state-level approvals may take up time and hence a significant time gap is needed between getting the media plans from DAVP and the final rollout of the intervention. When planning the media mix and implementation, external media planning partners should have access to DAVP rates.

Need for mainstreaming SBCC/IEC campaigns

A campaign or series of campaigns needs to be planned to eliminate the taboo and stigma attached to sanitation. Increased ownership and accountability among individual customers and households are required to achieve better sanitation results in their residences, neighborhoods, cities, districts, and the state. To achieve these sanitation goals, SBCC/IEC campaigns are designed to deliver sanitation messages to various communities and therefore sustain the sanitation process.

Sanitation related campaigns organized in different states

Tamil Nadu- Muzhu Sugadhara Tamizhagam campaign- A ‘Kolam’ was developed as the logo for this campaign to evoke the rich Tamil culture. The logo symbolizes the full cycle of sanitation (FCS), with petals referring to different stages of the cycle. SBCC strategies were developed for addressing behavior change among various sanitation chain stakeholders such as films on “Do’s & Don’ts” for construction of septic tank, and “on the full cycle of sanitation”

Malasur campaign across different cities in India- This campaign was developed by BBC media action that aimed to highlight the risk perception of fecal sludge by linking it to water. The focus was to target urban population aged 20-55 years who have completed primary school education and a household income of ~Rs. 10,000 per month. It was campaigned via outdoor (hoarding and wall painting), print (leaflet and poster), transit branding (cesspool truck branding, auto branding and van branding), digital (cinema slide, animation film, and GIFs), activation (miking, and street play). The details are available in English and other regional languages such as Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Marathi, Odia, Malayalam, etc.

Warangal- Sanitation Helpline (S-line) was launched in May 2016 as a central location for citizens to receive information, services, and complaint redressal in Warangal . The S-line number was widely advertised across the city on streets, buildings controlled by the government, desludging vehicles, and other locations. The city also launched the "I Want a Toilet" campaign, using various analogue and digital media to advertise the S-line number and the individual household latrine (IHHL) project. The decision to allow IHHL construction on non-tenured land, the provision of funding through SHGs to begin construction, the quick disbursement of subsidies, and technological solutions to address space and terrain-related challenges were all finalized during the weekly project implementation unit (PIU) meetings

Indore- To involve the public in promoting the use of Community Toilets/Public Toilets (CT/ PTs) and to educate residents about their use and maintenance, Indore Municipal Corporation created a ground-breaking campaign called "Selfie with Toilet".

Monitoring and evaluation involve a systematic tracking and analysing program data to determine the program status and desired impact on proposed social and behavior change.

Monitoring is essential to track and measure program activities, process indicators, or outputs during the life cycle of a program, project, or strategy. A systematic process of observations and primary data collection are involved to know the completed activities and their quality of implementation. This process helps in decision making on resources during the program implementation.

On the contrary, evaluation focuses on measuring outcomes and impact indicators. It tracks the project’s results at different time points to measure the level of change in key outcomes. To measure the key outcomes, data collection is required at the start (baseline) and end (endline) of the project.

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the project are fundamental in,

  • Determining the impact of intervention, and related factors on social and behaviour change
  • Diagnosing the intervention on its reach, appeal, and relevance
  • Comprehending the strengths and improvement areas
  • Determining the implementation of communication activities and the need for course correction

Planning for monitoring and evaluation involves developing a framework with,

  • Program activities- specific tasks that needs to be completed to achieve desired outputs
  • Outputs- measurable, observable services being produced as part of the intervention
  • Key indicators- intervention's likely short-term or medium-term effects
  • Impact- Overall long-term goal of the project

M&E of an SBCC intervention is carried out through:

  • Determining the reach across various platforms such as billboards, wall paintings, transit branding (vans and autorickshaws)
  • Frequency and locations where people were exposed to the intervention outputs
  • Recall of the communication- elements remembered related to the communication
  • Appeal (elements liked or disliked, and performance of the communication (ease of understanding, relevance, uniqueness)
  • Actions taken by population after viewing the communication
  • Long-term impact of the program can be measured through Change in levels of knowledge, attitude, motivation, and behaviour with increased communication frequency

Quantitative methods

Qualitative methods

Radio or TV transmission reports or programme logs

Observation notebooks

Attendance sheets, sign-in forms

Journals that record entries by frontline workers

Routine activity tally forms


Real-time GPS tracking of certain activities


(Table-5: Types of Monitoring methods used for an SBCC intervention. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

The state government usually oversee monitoring and evaluates the performance of its cities, therefore methods for gathering data and reporting must be developed utilizing outcome indicators. Some methods followed for M&E include administrative information from implementing consultants' and contractors' reports, task force field trips to several locations throughout the city, & NGOs and community groups feedback to task force and implementation agency. The progress of sanitation activities can also be measured through independent third-party assessments, and multiple evaluations by survey agencies.

ULBs must monitor how well-adopted outcomes and process standards are being followed by households and other establishments, etc. Consideration is also given to the introduction of citizen report cards, citizen monitoring committees, self-evaluation systems, inter-city competitions, etc.

  • Randomised Control Trials (RCT)- Subjects are part of experimental (receiving test intervention) or comparison/control (conventional) group; assessed to see differences in outcome and effectiveness of the intervention
  • Quasi-experimental surveys- baseline and endline data used to measure the change in knowledge, and attitude
  • Reach and recall surveys- to understand the effectiveness of the programme
  • Longitudinal study- repeatedly examine the same individual to understand the changes over a period of time

  • Includes focus group conversations, in-depth interviews with beneficiaries focusing on drivers and barriers to behaviour change
  • Includes media analysis, questionnaires and surveys with various stakeholders
  • Observations, Shadowing of beneficiaries, and Ethnographies are used to understand in detail the process of change
  • Observation notebooks
  • Journals that record entries by sanitation workers

(Figure-5: Types of Evaluation methods used for an SBCC intervention. Source: The Science, Art & Craft of SBCC)

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